三、教宗良十三世《自由》通谕

(Libertas Praestantissimum)1888620

 

1、引用通谕第36、37、38款的文献

36、但人们最伟大与最神圣的任务,无疑是热诚与虔敬地顶礼天主。由于吾人永久处于天主权下,并为天主的意志所统治;由于吾人出源于天主,并当回返于天主,故人有义务恭敬天主乃是必然的结论。加以,没有敬德,则不可能有任何美德;因为美德的任务在于引人们归向天主,他是人们最伟大最崇高的美善。故此敬德是:实行直接指向光荣天主的事宜的美德。(圣多玛斯)它是诸德之首脑。倘若人问: 有许多不同的宗教,甚至水火不能相容的宗教,究竟该信奉那一门。理智和本性一定回答说,应当信奉天主命人信奉的宗教。同时,这宗教有某些外在的记号可以容易辨认出来。至圣天主曾经立意以这些记号,使真宗教有别于其它宗教。倘若在这关系重大之事上,有所错误,其结果必然造成巨大的丧亡。所以,上述这种信仰自由,不但使人任意违反或放弃履行至圣任务的权利,又使人可以背弃万善的天主,步向邪恶,则这种自由,如上所提,并非自由,而是自由的堕落,以及使灵魂屈服罪恶的卑鄙奴役。

 

37、(有一种错误的行径) 由国家观点来看,信仰自由要国家不举行钦崇天主的礼仪,或不准在公共场合举行任何宗教仪式;不准袒护任何宗教,主张同等看待一切宗教,亦不必顾民众的愿望,即使民众是信仰公教的。想使这种作法正确无误,必须使:国家没有钦崇天主的义务或国家可以任意违反这义务而无罪的谬论变成真理。但二者显然是虚妄的。社会这个事物,无论由其组成份子及其权力形式(的角度)来研究,还是由其宗旨及其所产生的诸多伟大利益来探讨,绝对无疑,(社会是)人结合而组成,乃天主圣意使然。是天主使人(成为)生而为有灵的社会动物:是天主使人生活在社会中,使其通过与他人群居共处,而达至其单独不能获的一切本性需求。于是,社会亦应当承认天主为其创立者,并尊敬、崇拜天主的统治权。故此,理智及正义皆不许可国家实行同等看待不同的宗教派别,以及同等权利给与一切宗教的政策;因为这政策与无神论相差无几。

 

38、既然国家只应信奉一门宗教,则当然必须信奉唯一真宗教。这在公教国家是不难认出的;因为公教显然具有真宗教的一切标记。因此执政者想要善尽他们的职责,明智而有效地顾全国家的利益,必须保障并维护公教。国家权力是为了国民利益而建立的。虽然领导国民达成现世生活的繁荣乃其切身的任务。但不应消减甚至应当提供更多便利,以帮助国民抵达其最高和最终的美善。因为人的永福在于有这最高最终的美善;而忽视宗教者,决不可能抵达这宗旨。

 

2、通谕第36、37、38款文献的英文原文

36.Butassuredly of all the duties which man has to fulfillthat without doubtis the chiefest and holiest which commands him to worship God with devotion and piety.This follows of necessity from the truth that we are ever in the power of Godare ever guided by His will and providenceand having come forth from Himmust return to Him.Add to whichno true virtue can exist without religionfor moral virtue is concerned with those things which lead to God as man's supreme and ultimate good and therefore religion which (as St. Thomas says) "performs those actions which are directly and immediately ordained for the divine honor" rules and tempers all virtues. And if it be asked which of the many conflicting religions it is necessary to adoptreason and the natural law unhesitatingly tell us to practice that one which God enjoinsand which men can easily recognize by certain exterior noteswhereby Divine Providence has willed that it should be distinguished becausein a matter of such momentthe most terrible loss would be the consequence of error.Whereforewhen a liberty such as We have described is offered to manthe power is given him to pervert or abandon with impunity the most sacred of dutiesand to exchange the unchangeable good for evil whichas We have saidis no libertybut its degradationand the abject submission of the soul to sin.

37、38. This kind of libertyif considered in relation to the State clearly implies that there is no reason why the State should offer any homage to Godor should desire any public recognition of Himthat no one form of worship is to be preferred to anotherbut that all stand on an equal footing no account being taken of the religion of the peopleeven if they profess the Catholic faith.Butto justify thisit must needs be taken as true that the State has no duties toward Godor that such dutiesif they existcan be abandoned with impunityboth of which assertions are manifestly false. For it cannot be doubted but thatby the will of Godmen are united in civil societywhether its component parts be consideredor its formwhich implies authorityor the object of its existenceor the abundance of the vast services which it renders to man.God it is who has made man for society and has placed him in the company of others like himselfso that what was wanting to his nature and beyond his attainment if left to his own resources he might obtain by association with others. Whereforecivil society must acknowledge God as its Founder and Parentand must obey and reverence His power and authority.justice therefore forbidsand reason itself forbids the State to be godlessor to adopt a line of action which would end in godlessness -- namelyto treat the various religions (as they call them) alikeand to bestow upon them promiscuously equal rights and privileges. Sincethenthe profession of one religion is necessary in the Statethat religion must be professed which alone is trueand which can be recognised without difficultyespecially in Catholic Statesbecause the marks of truth areas it wereengraven upon it.This religionthereforethe rulers of the State must preserve and protectif they would provide -- as they should do -- with prudence and usefulness for the good of the community.For public authority exists for the welfare of those whom it governsandalthough its proximate end is to lead men to the prosperity found in this lifeyetin so doingit ought not to diminishbut rather to increase man's capability of attaining to the supreme good in which his everlasting happiness consists: which never can be attained if religion be disregarded.

 

四、庇护十世《剧烈》(Vehementer)1906年2月11日

 

1、引用通谕第13款的文献

13、我们抱着我们宗座的职责,深知我们肩负重要的任务,因此,为了维护教会神圣不可侵犯的权利,使这种权利完整无损,能够抵抗任何的攻击,我们对于法国的《政教分离法》,应严加申斥,予以谴责。这个《分离法》,既严重地侮辱天主,承认国家不敬奉天主的谬说,又违背性律,毁坏国际条约,侵犯教会的神圣组织,她的基本的权利和自由,违反正义,而且夺取教会合法取得的财产,这些财产,具有双方条约的保障。政教分离,也轻慢侮辱教廷的尊严,凌辱教宗本人,侮辱全法国的主教、神父和教友。因此我们义愤填膺,竭力抗议,凡是关于这次政教分离的起草、投票、公布,我们都严重予以抗议。我们同时声明,这种法律,绝对不能束缚教会不可隔绝的权利。这种权利,将永存不变。

2、通谕第13款文献的英文原文

 

13. Hencemindful of Our Apostolic charge and conscious of the imperious duty incumbent upon Us of defending and preserving against all assaults the full and absolute integrity of the sacred and inviolable rights of the Church We doby virtue of the supreme authority which God has confided to Usand on the grounds above set forthreprove and condemn the law voted in France for the separation of Church and Stateas deeply unjust to God whom it denies and as laying down the principle that the Republic recognizes no cult.We reprove and condemn it as violating the natural lawthe law of nations and fidelity to treaties as contrary to the Divine constitution of the Church to her essential rights and to her libertyas destroying justice and trampling underfoot the rights of property which the Church has acquired by many titles andin additionby virtue of the Concordat.We reprove and condemn it as gravely offensive to the dignity of this Apostolic Seeto Our own personto the Episcopacyand to the clergy and all the Catholics of France.ThereforeWe protest solemnly and with all Our strength against the introductionthe voting and the promulgation of this lawdeclaring that it can never be alleged against the imprescriptible rights of the Church. DzS.B.1995

 

五、庇护十世的《牧尔主羊》(Pascendi)通谕 190798

由此連結往: 《牧尔主羊》(Pascendi) 通谕

 

六、庇护十世西翁吾等宗座的职责》

(Le Sillon - Notre Charge Apostolique)通谕 1910825

 

1引用通谕第39、40款的文献

 

39、我们害怕更坏的情况就快到来最终结果()会出现比天主教更普遍的宗教因为西翁主义对它的领导来说是个宗教),最后在他们所谓的天国中把所有人结成为兄弟和战友。(他们会说)我们不是为教会工作,而是为人类服务。

 

40、()! 在这过程中,这个组织() 最终被现代教会敌人所利用,而今(它)只是一个在各国组织的背信大活动,目的是建立一个毫无信条、教阶、思想约束及情欲抑制的世界性的宗教()

 

2、通谕第39、40款文献的英文原文

39. We fear that worse is to come: the end result () will be a religion (for Sillonismso the leaders have saidis a religion) more universal than the Catholic Churchuniting all men become brothers and comrades at last in the "Kingdom of God". - "We do not work for the Church we work for mankind."

40. ()Alas! this organization () has been harnessed in its course by the modern enemies of the Churchand is now no more than a miserable affluent of the great movement of apostasy being organized in every country for the establishment of a One-World Church which shall have neither dogmas nor hierarchyneither discipline for the mindnor curb for the passions . ()