三、教宗良十三世《自由  》通諭  (Libertas Praestantissimum)

——1888年6月20日

 

1、引用通諭第36、37、38款的文獻

 

36、但人們最偉大與最神聖的任務,無疑是熱誠與虔敬地頂禮天主。由於吾人永久處於天主權下,並為天主的意志所統治﹔由於吾人出源於天主,並當回返於天主,故人有義務恭敬天主乃是必然的結論。加以,沒有敬德,則不可能有任何美德﹔因為美德的任務在於引導人們歸向天主,他是人們最偉大最崇高的美善。故此敬德是實行直接指向光榮天主的事宜的美德。(聖多瑪斯)它是諸德之首腦。

 

倘若人問: 有許多不同的宗教,甚至水火不能相容的宗教,究竟該信奉那一門。理智和本性一定回答說,應當信奉天主命人信奉的宗教。同時,這宗教有某些外在的記號可以容易辨認出來。至聖天主曾經立意以這些記號,使真宗教有別於其它宗教。倘若在這關系重大之事上,有所錯誤,其結果必然造成巨大的喪亡。所以,上述這種信仰自由,不但使人任意違反或放棄履行其至聖任務的權利,又使人可以背棄萬善的天主,步向邪惡,則這種自由,如上所提,並非自由,而是自由的墮落,以及使靈魂屈服為罪惡的卑鄙奴役。

 

37、(有一種錯誤的行徑) 由國家觀點來看,“信仰自由”要國家不舉行欽崇天主的禮儀,或不准在公共場合舉行任何宗教儀式﹔不准袒護任何宗教,主張同等看待一切宗教,亦不必顧及民眾的願望,即使民眾是信仰公教的。想使這種作法正確無誤,必須使國家沒有欽崇天主的義務”或“國家可以任意違反這義務而無罪”的謬論變成真理。但二者顯然是虛妄的。社會這個事物,無論由其組成份子及其權力形式(的角度)來研究,還是由其宗旨及其所產生的諸多偉大利益來探討,絕對無疑,(社會是)由眾人結合而組成,乃天主聖意使然。是天主使人(成為)生而為有靈的社會動物:是天主使人生活在社會中,使其通過與他人群居共處,而達至其單獨不能獲得的一切本性需求。於是,社會亦應當承認天主為其創立者,並尊敬、崇拜天主的統治權。故此,理智及正義皆不許可國家實行同等看待不同的宗教派別,以及將同等權利給與一切宗教的政策﹔因為這政策與無神論相差無幾。

 

38、既然國家隻應信奉一門宗教,則當然必須信奉唯一真宗教。這在公教國家是不難認出的﹔因為公教顯然具有真宗教的一切標記。因此執政者想要善盡他們的職責,明智而有效地顧全國家的利益,必須保障並維護公教。國家權力是為了國民利益而建立的。雖然領導國民達成現世生活的繁榮乃其切身的任務。但不應消減甚至應當提供更多便利,以幫助國民抵達其最高和最終的美善。因為人的永福在於擁有這最高最終的美善﹔而忽視宗教者,決不可能抵達這宗旨。

 

2、通諭第363738款文獻的英文原文

 

36.But,assuredly, of all the duties which man has to fulfill,that, without doubt,is the chiefest and holiest which commands him to worship God with devotion and piety.This follows of necessity from the truth that we are ever in the power of God,are ever guided by His will and providence,and, having come forth from Him,must return to Him.Add to which,no true virtue can exist without religion,for moral virtue is concerned with those things which lead to God as man\'s supreme and ultimate good and therefore religion, which (as St. Thomas says) \"performs those actions which are directly and immediately ordained for the divine honor,\" rules and tempers all virtues. And if it be asked which of the many conflicting religions it is necessary to adopt,reason and the natural law unhesitatingly tell us to practice that one which God enjoins,and which men can easily recognize by certain exterior notes,whereby Divine Providence has willed that it should be distinguished, because,in a matter of such moment,the most terrible loss would be the consequence of error.Wherefore,when a liberty such as We have described is offered to man,the power is given him to pervert or abandon with impunity the most sacred of duties,and to exchange the unchangeable good for evil which,as We have said,is no liberty,but its degradation,and the abject submission of the soul to sin.

3738. This kind of liberty,if considered in relation to the State, clearly implies that there is no reason why the State should offer any homage to God,or should desire any public recognition of Himthat no one form of worship is to be preferred to another,but that all stand on an equal footing, no account being taken of the religion of the people,even if they profess the Catholic faith.But,to justify this,it must needs be taken as true that the State has no duties toward God,or that such duties,if they exist,can be abandoned with impunity,both of which assertions are manifestly false. For it cannot be doubted but that,by the will of God,men are united in civil societywhether its component parts be consideredor its form,which implies authorityor the object of its existenceor the abundance of the vast services which it renders to man.God it is who has made man for society, and has placed him in the company of others like himself,so that what was wanting to his nature, and beyond his attainment if left to his own resources, he might obtain by association with others. Wherefore,civil society must acknowledge God as its Founder and Parent,and must obey and reverence His power and authority.justice therefore forbids,and reason itself forbids, the State to be godlessor to adopt a line of action which would end in godlessness -- namely,to treat the various religions (as they call them) alike,and to bestow upon them promiscuously equal rights and privileges. Since,then,the profession of one religion is necessary in the State,that religion must be professed which alone is true,and which can be recognised without difficulty,especially in Catholic States,because the marks of truth are,as it were,engraven upon it.This religion,therefore,the rulers of the State must preserve and protect,if they would provide -- as they should do -- with prudence and usefulness for the good of the community.For public authority exists for the welfare of those whom it governsand,although its proximate end is to lead men to the prosperity found in this life,yet,in so doing,it ought not to diminish,but rather to increase, man's capability of attaining to the supreme good in which his everlasting happiness consists: which never can be attained if religion be disregarded.

 

四、庇護十世《劇烈》(Vehementer)——1906年2月11日

 1、引用通諭第13款的文獻

 

13、我們抱著我們宗座的職責,深知我們肩負重要的任務,因此,為了維護教會神聖不可侵犯的權利,使這種權利完整無損,能夠抵抗任何的攻擊,我們對於法國的《政教分離法》,應嚴加申斥,予以譴責。這個《分離法》,既嚴重地侮辱天主,承認國家不敬奉天主的謬說,又違背性律,毀壞國際條約,侵犯教會的神聖組織,她的基本的權利和自由,違反正義,而且奪取教會合法取得的財產,這些財產,具有雙方條約的保障。政教分離,也輕慢侮辱教廷的尊嚴,凌辱教宗本人,侮辱全法國的主教、神父和教友。因此我們義憤填膺,竭力抗議,凡是關於這次政教分離的起草、投票、公布,我們都嚴重予以抗議。我們同時聲明,這種法律,絕對不能束縛教會不可隔絕的權利。這種權利,將永存不變。

 

2、通諭第13款文獻的英文原文

   13.Hence,mindful of Our Apostolic charge and conscious of the imperious duty incumbent upon Us of defending and preserving against all assaults the full and absolute integrity of the sacred and inviolable rights of the Church, We do,by virtue of the supreme authority which God has confided to Us,and on the grounds above set forth,reprove and condemn the law voted in France for the separation of Church and State,as deeply unjust to God whom it denies, and as laying down the principle that the Republic recognizes no cult.We reprove and condemn it as violating the natural law,the law of nations, and fidelity to treaties as contrary to the Divine constitution of the Church, to her essential rights and to her libertyas destroying justice and trampling underfoot the rights of property which the Church has acquired by many titles and,in addition,by virtue of the Concordat.We reprove and condemn it as gravely offensive to the dignity of this Apostolic See,to Our own person,to the Episcopacy,and to the clergy and all the Catholics of France.Therefore,We protest solemnly and with all Our strength against the introduction,the voting and the promulgation of this law,declaring that it can never be alleged against the imprescriptible rights of the Church. DzS.B.1995

 

五、庇護十世的《牧爾主羊》(Pascendi) 通諭 ——190798

 

[附錄]《聖庇護十世傳》第二十二章

(See Appendix “The Life of St.Pius X”chapter 22.)

 

六、庇護十世《西翁——吾等宗座的職責》(Le Sillon - Notre Charge Apostolique)通諭 ——1910825

1、引用通諭第3940款的文獻

 

39、我們害怕更壞的情況就快到來最終結果 ……會出現比天主教更普遍的宗教因為西翁主義對它的領導來說是個宗教)最后在他們所謂的)“天國〝中把所有人結成為兄弟和戰友。(他們會說)“我們不是為教會工作,而是為人類服務。”

40、…… 唉! 在這過程中,這個組織 …… 最終被現代教會敵人所利用,而今(它)隻是一個在各國組織的背信大活動,目的是建立一個毫無信條、教階、思想約束及情欲抑制的全世界的“宗教”。……

 

2、通諭第3940款文獻的英文原文

39. We fear that worse is to come: the end result ……will be a religion (for Sillonism,so the leaders have said,is a religion) more universal than the Catholic Church,uniting all men become brothers and comrades at last in the "Kingdom of God". - "We do not work for the Church, we work for mankind".

    40.…… Alas! this organization …… has been harnessed in its course by the modern enemies of the Church,and is now no more than a miserable affluent of the great movement of apostasy being organized in every country for the establishment of a One-World Church which shall have neither dogmas, nor hierarchy,neither discipline for the mind,nor curb for the passions .……